Breed Standard Doberman FCI
Doberman breed standard FCI No. 143 / 02.14.1994
Companion, guard and service dog
Group 2. Pinschers and schnauzers, Molossoid breeds, Swiss Shepherd dogs.
Section 1. Pinschers and Schnauzers.
With performance tests.
In the photo: Doberman in the rack
BRIEF HISTORICAL SUMMARY: Dobermann is the only German breed that bears the name of its first breeder - Friedrich Luis Dobermann (02/01/1834 - 06/09/1894). It is believed that he was a tax collector, the owner of a slaughterhouse (flayer), and part of the time - a dog catcher, having the legal right to catch all stray dogs. From this contingent, he selected animals of a special type. The so-called “butcher dogs”, which at that time were already considered a relatively clean breed, played the most important role in the origin of the Doberman breed. These dogs were an early type of Rottweiler mixed with Thuringian shepherds, black in color with rusty red tan. Mr. Dobermann bred these crossbreeds in the 1870s. Thus, he got “his” breed: not just vigilant, but with highly developed protective qualities of service and guard dogs. They were often used as guard and police dogs. For their widespread use in the work of the police, they received the nickname "gendarme dog." They were used in the hunt for limited large predators. In these circumstances, it goes without saying that the Doberman was officially recognized as a police dog in the early twentieth century.
Doberman is a medium-sized dog, strong, muscular. Despite its massiveness, it must be elegant and noble, which should be manifested in the outlines of the body. It is great as a companion, guard and service dog, as well as a dog for the whole family.
GENERAL FORM: Doberman - medium in size, strong, muscular build. Thanks to the elegant lines of the body, proud posture, stamina and strong expression, it matches the perfect portrait of the dog.
IMPORTANT RELATIONS: The body of the Doberman appears almost square, especially in males. The oblique body length, measured from the protrusion of the shoulder-scapular joint to the protrusion of the sciatic tubercle, should not exceed the height at the withers by more than 5% in males and 10% in females.
BEHAVIOR AND TEMPERAMENT: The Doberman character is friendly and calm, he is devoted to the family and loves children. Moderate temperament and moderate alertness are desirable. An average threshold of excitability is required for good contact with the owner. Easily trained, the Doberman works with pleasure and must have the proper working abilities, courage and firmness. It requires self-confidence and fearlessness, as well as adaptability and attention to the social environment.
SKULL: Strong, medium length. When viewed from above, the head has the shape of a blunt wedge. Seen from the front, the line of the crown should be almost flat and not fall to the ears. The line of the muzzle extends almost directly to the upper line of the skull, which, gently rounding, passes into the line of the neck. The superciliary arches are well developed, but do not protrude. However, the frontal groove is obvious. The occipital protuberance should not be noticeable. Seen from the front and top, the sides of the head should not be convex. A slight bulge between the back of the maxilla and the zygomatic arch should be in harmony with the total length of the head. The muscles of the head should be well developed.
Transition from forehead to muzzle: Should be weak, but obvious.
Nose: Nostrils well developed, wider, with large openings, generally not protruding. Black - in black dogs in brown dogs, respectively, in lighter tones.
Muzzle: Must be highly developed. The length is equal to the cranial part. Must have depth. The mouth should open wide, reaching the molars.A good muzzle width should also be in the region of the upper and lower incisors.
Lips: Must be dry and close to the jaws to ensure a tight closure of the mouth. Gum pigment should be dark in brown dogs - the corresponding, lighter tone.
Jaws, dental formula, teeth: Powerful, wide upper and lower jaws, scissor bite, 42 teeth correctly positioned and of normal size.
EYES: Medium in size, oval and dark in color. Lighter shades are allowed in brown dogs. Adjacent eyelids covered in wool. Bald patches around the eyes are extremely undesirable.
EARS: Set high, carries erect. Docked in proportion to the head. In countries where cropping is not allowed, uncropped ears are equally recognized (preferably of medium size, the leading edge is adjacent to the cheekbones).
NECK: Must have a good length in proportion to the body and head. Dry and muscular. Its outlines gradually descend in a smooth bend. Vertical setting reflects nobility.
Withers: Should be pronounced in height and length, especially in males, which determines the slope of the top line from the withers to the croup.
Back (from withers to maclocs): Short and compact, wide and well muscled.
Loin: Broad and well muscled. The bitch may be slightly longer, because space for puppies is required.
Croup: Broad and well muscled, slightly sloping slightly from the moclocs to the base of the tail, should appear well-rounded, not horizontal or clearly oblique.
Chest: The length and width of the chest should be in the right proportion to the length of the body. The depth of slightly arched ribs should be approximately 50% of the height of the dog at the withers. Especially the chest is wide in the well-developed front part.
Bottom line: Visibly pulled from the bottom of the sternum to the back. Tail: High set, short docked so that approximately two caudal vertebrae remain visible. In countries where docking is not permitted by law, the tail may remain natural.
General view: The front legs when viewed from all sides are almost straight, vertical to the ground and highly developed.
Shoulders: The shoulder blades are oblique, adjacent to the chest, on both sides of the scapular crest well muscled and protrude above the thoracic spine. The angle of inclination to the horizon is approximately 50 degrees.
The humerus: Medium length, well muscled, form an angle with the shoulder blades of approximately 105-110 degrees.
Elbow: Directed strictly backward, not turned out.
Forearm: Strong and straight. Well muscled. Harmonious length.
Metacarpus: The bones are strong. Direct when viewed from the front. Seen from the side, only slightly inclined, maximum 10 degrees.
Forefeet: Feet short and lumpy (feline). Fingers are arched. The nails are short and dark.
General view: Due to the well-developed pelvic muscles of the croup and hips, when viewed from the back, the Doberman will look wide and rounded. The muscles that pass from the pelvis to the hips and legs, end in good development in width, as well as in the hips, in the knee joints and legs. Strong hind legs are straight and parallel.
Hips: Medium length and width, well muscled. Good hip angle. A horizontal angle of approximately 80 to 85 degrees.
Knees: The knee joint is strong and is formed by the thigh and lower leg, as well as the patella. The knee angle is approximately 130 degrees.
Tibia: Medium length, in harmony with the total length of the hind limbs.
Hocks: Moderate strength and parallel. The lower leg bones are articulated with the metatarsal in the hock joint at an angle of about 140 degrees.
Metatarsus: Short and upright to the ground.
Hind feet: Similar to the front legs, the toes of the hind legs are short, arched and lumpy. The nails are short and dark.
GAIT / MOVEMENT: Particularly significant for both official use and appearance.The movements are springy, elegant, fast, free and sweeping. Perhaps a larger reach of the front legs. The hind limbs are well stretched and pushed with the necessary elasticity. The front foot of one side and the back foot of the other move forward simultaneously. The back, ligaments and joints must be stable.
LEATHER: Everywhere snug and well pigmented.
WOOL: Short, stiff and thick. Tight and smooth, evenly distributed over the entire surface. Undercoat is not allowed.
COLOR: Black or brown - with rusty-red, clearly defined and distinct tan marks on the face, cheekbones, eyebrows, throat, metacarpals, metatarsals, paws, on the inside of the hind legs, forearms and under the tail, two spots on the chest.
HEIGHT AND WEIGHT
GROWTH: Height at the highest point of the withers.
Males: 68 - 72 cm.
Bitches: 63 - 68 cm.
Average height is desirable.
WEIGHT: Dogs about 40 - 45 kg.
Bitches about 32 - 35 kg.
DEFECTS: Any deviation from the above points should be considered as a flaw or vice depending on the severity.
General view: Deviations in the sexual type excessive massiveness too light dog too heavy dog too thin legged bone too.
Head: Too heavy too narrow too short transition from forehead to muzzle too pronounced or too slight humpiness poor inclination of the top line of the cranial part weak lower jaw round or narrow eyes light eyes cheekbones too developed drooping lips eyes too bulging or too deep set ears set too high or too low crease in the corner of the mouth.
Neck: Slightly short, too short, loose skin on the throat; Suspension; too (inharmonious); long neck; thin neck.
Block: Back not strong; sloping croup; soft back; humpback back; insufficient or too arched ribs; insufficient depth or width of the chest; back (from withers to maclocs);
Extremities: Too insignificant or too pronounced angles of the fore and hind limbs free elbows deviations from the standard position and the length of the levers and joints too narrow or too wide set of bows, straightened corners of the hock joints, sabulousness loose or flat paws, twisted fingers pale claws.
Shirt: The tan marks are too light or fuzzy, the tan marks have a mask; a large black spot on the legs; tan marks on the chest are barely noticeable or the coarse coat is too long, soft, curly or dull. Rare bald patches of hair are large tufts of wool, especially on the body of the obvious undercoat.
Character: Insufficiently self-confident, too excitable temperament, increased alertness, too high or too low a threshold of excitability.
Growth: For a deviation in growth of up to two centimeters from the standard, the mark should be reduced.
Movements Shaky limited or difficult amble.
General view: Dogs in the bitch type, females in the dog type.
Eyes: Yellow (predatory) blue, partially or completely.
Tooth arcade: Overshot, direct bite, bite, missing teeth.
Shirt: White markings, markedly long or wavy coat, markedly rare coat or large bald patches.
Character: Fearful, nervous and aggressive animals.
Height: Dogs with a deviation of more than two centimeters above or below the standard.
NOTE: Males should have two apparently normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.